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Clouds and other adverse atmospheric conditions can obscure an otherwise visible Crescent Moon.
When this happens, the new month will begin a day later, at short notice.
If the Crescent Moon is visible shortly after sunset on the evening of day 29, the following day is the first day of the new month.
If no sighting is made, a 30th day is added to the current month, which is then followed by the first day of the subsequent month. The Persian and Islamic calendar systems are otherwise unrelated.
Shari'a is seen by many Muslims as an entire system of guidelines and rules which encompass criminal law, personal status law, and many other aspects of religious, cultural, and social life.
The Islamic calendar has 12 months with 29 or 30 days.
It takes 33 years until the Hijri year has cycled through a full Gregorian year and a given Islamic date again falls on the same Gregorian date.
Since the Islamic calendar years are shorter than Gregorian years and the current year number is lower, the two calendar systems will one day show the same year number.
Unlike other calendar systems that use leap days or leap months to synchronize the calendar with the solar year, the Islamic calendar is completely detached from astronomical seasons marked by the equinoxes and solstices.
An Islamic year consistently falls about 11 days short of the solar year.